Pythagorio is a village built on the southeastern part of the island. Its population according to the 2011 census is 1,272 people. The name of the settlement until 1955 was Tigani, when it was renamed Pythagorio from the International Organization of Pythagoreans, in honor of the philosopher Pythagoras who came from Samos. It belongs to the municipality of Samos. Pythagoreio is a beautiful coastal cosmopolitan town with lots of visitors especially during the summer.During the antiquity, the ancient city of Samos used to be where Pythagorio lies nowdays.The port of the current settlement coincides with the port of the ancient city, which Herodotus describes it as one of the wonders of the island and it is considered the oldest artificial harbor in the Mediterranean. The ruins of the Greek and Roman monuments, the impressive Efpalinos Tunnel "or" Aqueduct of Efpalinou ", along with the Heraion of Samos, were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 1992.
Newer remarkable building in Pythagorion is the tower of Lycurgus Logothetis. In the harbor stands the statue of Pythagoras, a modern sculpture depicting the famous Pythagoras theorem.
The town is located in the most developed touristic area of the island, has a very good tourist infrastructure and offers many alternatives for accommodation, both within the city and within walking distance of the region. In traditional taverns and cafes popping up everywhere in the picturesque squares and alleys, you can taste the local cuisine or enjoy the local delicacies accompanied with nice tidbits (meze) that remind the visitor of the island's proximity to Asia Minor. Of course the fun and entertainment is guaranteed here, especially for young people. Here they will find many places with trendy, yet traditional music. The market of the town offers all the products and services needed. The remarkable museums, the organization of many exhibitions (painting, photography, etc.), mainly in the summer season, as well as international conferences, lectures internationally prestigious (Philosophy, Science, Arts, New Technologies, Archaeology, etc.) and organization of festivals (theater, music, etc.) are a magnet for thousands of visitors throughout the year.